treasure hunt Click here to go to Treasure Hunt.

North American Indians

Go to Part Two of Indians in North America.

When did the first people come to America?
There are different answers. But most recent research show it could have been 20,000 to 30,000 years ago.

Where did they come from?

They came from Beringia. This place no longer exists. Part of it is in Russia, part in Alaska and Canada. During the Ice Age the oceans were much lower because lots of the ocean water was frozen. That is why there was land in all of Beringia and people, animals and plants could move easily over the whole area. Ice probably did not cover the whole area in summer. But when the Ice Age ended about 10,500 years ago the seas rose and it was no longer possible to walk from Asia to North America
The people of Beringia which was a very cold place as Siberia is today probably came from central Asia. Here there was a mixture of European types of people and Asian types of people. Thus American Indians are partly Asian and partly European.

Beringia

Even though most of Alaska and Canada were covered with Ice in the Ice Age, there was a break in the ice sheet all the way from Alaska to the south where there was no ice. The Indians could travel this way. Some lived in this ice free area and some moved on all the way to South America.

Beringia

What did they eat?
The first people to arrive in North America were hunters and gatherers. They also caught fish. They lived much like Stone Age people everywhere. Even though it was cold in Beringia, it was apparently never covered with ice in summer, thus there were many animals and plants for people to eat. They could hunt woolly mammoths, woolly rhinoceroses, reindeer and moose.

what did they wear?
Beringia

Like everywhere in the Stone Age they wore clothes made of animal skins. They used shells, bones, feathers, animal tusks, stones and other natural objects for decoration.

what language did they speak?

Beringia

There is no way to know what language the first people spoke. But Indian tribes in North America eventually came to speak many different languages. These languages are not related to any other languages, though they may have a very slight resemblence to each other.

which were the largest Indian tribes in the USA and where did they live?

Navaho
1. Navaho
live in Southwest USA
native language Diné
hunting and farming crops and livestock. Historically, the Navajos’ livestock frequently included sheep maintained for wool that could be woven into clothing, blankets, and rug.
live in dwellings called hogans, which were made by layering bark and mud over frameworks made from sticks and wood. Hogans always faced east for sunlight.

2.Cherokee
Cherokee
live in Southeast Usa
language Cherokee
agriculturally-focused and advanced tribe, the Cherokee farmed much of their food, supplementing their diets with hunted and gathered resources. grew their crops in the fashion of the “Three Sisters,” farming corn, beans and squash together so that the plants assisted one another.

3.Sioux
Sieoux
lived Great Plains
language Lakota
hunting and traveling on horseback. They often traded to get corn from more agriculturally established groups. Theylived in teepees.

4.Chippewa (Ojibwe)
Chippawa
Northern USA around Great Lakes
language Ojibwe
lived by agriculture hunting and gathering, skill at crafting birchbark into dwellings and canoes.
5. Choctaw
choctas
Southeast USA
language Choctaw
they were code talkers in World war II.

6.Apache
apache
Southwest USA
nomadic and fierce

7.Pueblo
Pueblo
southwest USA
languages Zuni, Hopi
lived in villages agriculture and developed system of irrigation

8. Iroquois (Haudenosaunee)
Iroquois
Northeastern USA and eastern Canada
languages Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida
“Haudenosaunee,” means “people of the longhouse” in reference to the distinctive dwellings that they historically lived in. Longhouses were crafted from wood and housed several families.
They lived mostly from agriculture

9. Creek (Muskogee)
Creek
Southeastern USA
language Muskogee Creek
tribe was historically rather peaceful, putting a lot of their energy into thoroughly developing social roles and cultural arts. These arts included intricately developed clothing and the common practice of tattooing large areas of their bodies. The Creeks were considered by settlers to be among the Five Civilized Tribes, along with the Chickasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, and Seminole tribes

10.Blackfoot
Blackfoot
lived Montana Midwest
language Algonquian
nomadic, hunting gathering
buffalo hunters and a powerful territorial force, asserting themselves wherever they migrated.

PART TWO
Did American Indians have agriculture?
Maize
Planting corn
Maize
Making flour out of corn.
Maize
squah, corn and beans
climate changes (beginning about 10,000 BCE) resulted in warmer and drier weather, a contributing factor in the extinction of megafauna, such as the mastodon and mammoth that were hunted by the stone-age Indians. Besides climate change, the large animals may have perished due to increased human population and their improved hunting techniques. By 6000 BCE two-thirds of all North American animals weighing more than 100 pounds were extinct and the bison was the only large animal to survive on the Great Plains.
Some Indian tribes remained nomadic. They moved to where they could find food, especially larger animals like deer or moose to hunt or good fishing areas.
They followed a new pattern called "making the seasonal rounds" where they moved to familiar places based upon the growing seasons of plants, their major source of food. In the spring, summer and early fall women harvested seeds, nuts, fruit, grasses, juniper berries and mesquite beans. Any surplus food was stored for later use. Men hunted small game like rabbits using traps and snares. During the fall and winter men hunted deer, big horn sheep, bison and antelope with the atlatl and darts.
These tribes did not have permanent villages, but they did trade with tribes for agricultural goods, tools, weapons and ornaments. Most Indian tribes in the USA used agriculture. The main crops were squash, beans, and corn. Some of them combined agriculture and hunting and gathering and had summer and winter villages and camps, with the village being permanent.
quinoa  pinenuts  duck weed  amaranth
Besides the three main foods Northamerican Indians cultivated tomatoes, sunflowers, amaranth to make flour, pumpkins, gourds, sumpfweed, goosefoot.

Did they live in towns?
town
Some tribes did not live in villages. This is a Kanosh Camp in Utah.
town   town
Two views of Cahokia in Illinois. The map shows that many people lived there. It was a ceremonial city which people also came from further away to the ceremonies.
town
map of Iroquois village
town
Shawnee village
  town
Mesa Verde Colorado
During the time of population increase, in the early 13th century, people began creating what are called "cliff dwellings," which are houses, and in some cases entire villages, built into cliff edges. The National Park Service estimates that there are about 600 of these preserved at Mesa Verde National Park. Built near springs, the naturally enclosed sites offered protection against both the elements and intruders.They could only be entered with ladders.
Each family generally lived in a single room of the building unless they grew too large, at which time; side-rooms were sometimes added. The houses of the pueblo were usually built around a central, open space or plaza in the middle of which was a “kiva,” a sunken chamber used for religious purposes.
Houses were made from stone, adobe mud, and other local material, or were carved into the sides of canyon walls.
At one Mesa Verde site called "Sand Canyon," people late in the 13th century were depending more on wild plants and were eating less domesticated turkey. With the population shrinking, the site fell into ruin and "refuse was being deposited in once-important civic or ceremonial structures, such as the great kiva".
There were also signs of a battle.
town
Types of Indian houses
town
Building long houses
Originally Indians did not live in towns, but by about 2000 B.C. some tribes in the east of the US and in the southwest began forming villages and developing agriculture which was invented separately in these two areas. By about 2500 BC: The Cochise become skilled farmers of the American Southwest, but agriculture would not be consistently adopted until the 1st century AD. Most tribes then lived in towns at least part of the year. If their main source of food was agriculture, the towns were permanent. Some towns could be quite large, but none were as big as in Mexico where Mexico city then called Tenochtitlán may have had 1 million inhabitants under the Aztecs.
Towns had both houses where the families lived and public areas where ceremonies took place, or where public gatherings occurred and decisions for the tribe were made. There were also storage areas where food was kept.
Trade
Mesa Verde took part in a vast trade network. "The presence of Chaco-style pottery vessels, macaw-feather sashes, and copper bells at some sites indicates that the Pueblo people of the Mesa Verde region were part of a vast trading network that included distant locations in Mexico. But all tribes traded with each other, thus objects and ideas spread all over North America.
How did they travel and carry goods?
travel
trading furs, beads and silver
travel
travois with dog
travel
travois with horse
Where there were rivers they used canoes.
Travois: they did not have wheeled vehicles. Instead, they used a travois. A travois was a buffalo or other skin spread over long poles. Goods were piled on the skin. The dogs dragged goods on a travois. A big, strong dog could manage a load of just seventy-five pounds or less. After about 1550 Horses pulled the travois. The travois was usually nothing more than parts of their tipi. Instead of dragging tipis, they set the tipis to work carrying goods.
The Indians got their first horses from the Spanish. When the Spanish explorers Coronado and DeSoto came into America they brought horses with them. This was in the year of 1540. Some horses got away and went wild. Before they had horses Indians used dogs to carry things. They probably brought the dogs with them when they came from Berlingia.

American Indian Handicrafts
Canoe
Making a canoe out of birch bark

Basket making
basket   basket
>Baskets
Early Basketmaker Era (7000 - 1500 BCE) was an Archaic cultural period of ancestors to the Ancient Pueblo People. They were distinguished from other Archaic people of the Southwest by their basketry which was used to gather and store food. They became reliant on wild seeds, grasses, nuts and fruit for food and changed their movement patterns and lifestyle by maximizing the edible wild food and small game within a geographical region. Manos and metates began to be used to process seeds and nuts. With the extinction of megafauna, hunters adapted their tools, using spears with smaller projectile points and then atlatl and darts. Simple dwellings made of wood, brush and earth provided shelter.
Pottery
pottery   pottery
pottery
Pottery making began after 3000 B.C. in the south and spread slowly.
Indian weapons and tools - bow and arrows, spears, atlatl, darts, tomahawks, knives
weapons
various Indian weapons
weapon
This is an atlatl which is a cross between a sling and a bow and arrow
tools
tools

Amerindian fabrics, clothing, rugs and blankets
weaving
weaving
weaving
weaving
The oldest-known weavings in North America come from the Windover Archaeological Site in Florida. Dating from 4900 to 6500 B.C. and made from plant fibres, the Windover hunter-gatherers produced "finely crafted" twined and plain weave textiles.
Most people in North America made their clothing from agave plant fiber – some of it grew wild, and some of it they farmed. Richer people wore cotton clothing. Cotton came originally from the Aztec people in Mexico.
They knitted it into socks. Men wore kilts (skirts) and women wore dresses, and they both wore ankle-high leather moccasins. These cotton clothes were appropriate for the hot weather of the south-west.
Mississippians and the Cherokee made their clothes out of the inner bark of trees which they peeled off, beat it until it was flexible, and then spun and wove it into cloth like linen.
weaving According to Navajo tradition, they were taught to weave by two holy ones: Spider Man and Spider Woman. The legend says that Spider Man created the loom of sunshine, lightning and rain, while Spider Woman taught the Navajo how to weave it.
The original function of Navajo weaving was to produce clothing: "shoulder robes or cloaks, traditional dresses for women, semi-tailored shirts, breechcloths, and a variety of belts, cloaks, shoulder robes, sashes, hair ties, and garters
Traditional blankets were simple in design— early Pueblo blankets prominently featured banded stripe-patterns. The main colors of early blankets were typically grey, brown, tan, white or black, which was due to the natural color of the Churro sheep. Stripes were also colored with indigo, which could be obtained from indigofera shrubs imported from Mexico on pony caravans. The Navajo favored the color red, as it’s frequent in their weaving, but it was difficult to obtain red vegetable dyes in the Southwest.
Shoes were made of skins, leather and called moccasins.
shoe

When did Europeans come to America?
Of course we know about Columbus. He came in 1492. The Vikings were in North America in Newfoundland and Vinland around 1000 A.D. but their settlements disappeared at the latest when the Greenland settlement disappeared about 1400 A.D. The location of Vinland is still unknown. Perhaps it was in New England where wild grapes did grow. Vinland means land of grapes. Did any settlers survive, did they mix with the Indians?
Some people think there is evidence in the Algonquin language and also in stones with inscriptions tha show European influence. Genetically all American Indians have European genes, presumably existing in the original group coming from Beringia.

Where did Columbus land?
1492: La Navidad is established on the island of Hispaniola; it was destroyed by the following year.
1493: The colony of La Isabela is established on the island of Hispaniola.
1493: Columbus arrives in Puerto Rico
1496: Santo Domingo, the first European permanent settlement, is built.
1497: John Cabot reaches Newfoundland.
1498: In his third voyage, Columbus reaches Trinidad and Tobago.
1498: La Isabela is abandoned by the Spanish.


What Indians were there?
Jamestown
The Arawak/Taíno people.
The Arawak tribe originated in the Orinoco Delta, spreading from Venezuela to the Caribean. They traveled to Hispaniola around 1200 CE. Each society on the island was a small independent kingdom with a leader known as a cacique.

How did they interact with Indians?
tainos
Columbus and the Tainos
Taino people were known to be friendly with the Spanish, and perhaps this friendliness was perceived as peacefulness. They traded freely with them and offered them gifts, and in exchange, they may have been momentarily spared being captured and enslaved. Legend holds that the Loconos themselves adopted the name Aruacas as a way to distinguish to the Spanish that they were a friendly group. Aruac became Arawak—the peaceful people of the Caribbean.
The Carib tribe is less friendly. The word is purported to mean “brave” and who is braver than the people who resisted the advancement of the colonizers? In the eyes of Columbus and those that came after, “brave” becomes “aggressive.” Columbus and others of his time stoked the mythology of the cannibalistic, ruthless Carib with the Spanish monarchy to obtain their approval to launch a slave trade that would fund the development of the Caribbean: In exchange for supplies and livestock to help the colonists gain their footing, Columbus would send ships of slaves drawn from the vengeful Caribs.

Why did so many Indians in the Caribean die?
Many of the Indigenous people of the Caribbean were eradicated by disease, starvation, and the hardships of the work they were made to do in the mines, as divers, and on plantations. By the middle of the 16th-century, their numbers were so low that the import of Africans as slaves was necessary to continue to colonial conquest.
But all of them did not die, and DNA has shown that most people in Puerto Rican have some Taino blood.

Where were other settlements of colonists?
Remains of Viking settlements were found in Newfoundland, Canada.
1499: João Fernandes Lavrador maps Labrador and Newfoundland
Europeans, mainly Spanish, French and English tried to establish settlements in the 16th century. All of them failed.
Jamestown
Jamestown in Virginia was founded in 1607. In this picture the chief of the local Indian tribe Powhatan had the leader of the colonists James Smith captured and held a court process against him. He was freed in the end because of the intercession of Pocahontas, Chief Powhatan’s 13-year-old daughter.
An accidental fire destroyed much of the town, and hunger, disease, and Indian attacks continued. During this time, Pocahontas often came to Jamestown as an emissary of her father, sometimes bearing gifts of food to help the hard-pressed settlers.
Playmouth
Plymouth colony in Massachusetts founded in 1620 succeeded.

Some fanous North American Indians
samoset
Samoset Wampanoag greets the Pilgrims
famous indians
Geronimo Apache
famous indians
Geronimo Apache
famous indians
Pocahantas Algonquin
famous indians
Sitting Bull and his family Dakota Sioux
famous indians
Black Hawk Sauk Chief
famous indians
Tecumseh Shawnee
famous indians
Massasoit Wampanoag
famous indians
Cochise Apache
famous indians
Crazy Horse Ogala Lakota

Did Indian tribes fight each other?
Indian tribes fought each other. But some tribes joined into large confederations.

What were the most famous battles between settlers and Indian wars in the USA?
wars
King Phillips War 1675–1678 between Indian inhabitants of New England and New England colonists and their Indian allies. The war is named for Metacomet, the Wampanoag chief who adopted the name Philip. The war continued until the signing of the Treaty of Casco Bay in April 1678. the colonists lost 800 persons, the Indians about 3000. More than half of New England's towns were attacked by Indians. King Philip's War began the development of an independent American identity separate from Britain.
wars
Pequot war 1636–37 by the Pequot people against English settlers from the Massachusetts Bay, Connecticut, and Saybrook colonies and their Native American allies (including the Narragansett and Mohegan) that eliminated the Pequot as an impediment to English colonization of southern New England.
wars
Custer's Last Stand, was an armed engagement between combined forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes and the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army. The battle, which resulted in the defeat of U.S. forces, was the most significant action of the Great Sioux War of 1876. It took place on June 25–26, 1876, along the Little Bighorn River in the Crow Indian Reservation in southeastern Montana Territory.
Wounded Knee Dezember 1890 auf dem Gebiet der heutigen Ortschaft Wounded Knee in der Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota statt. Dabei wurden 300 wehrlose Angehörige verschiedener Sioux-Indianerstämme von Angehörigen des 7. US-Kavallerie-Regiments ermordet. Das Massaker brach den Widerstand der indigenen Bevölkerung in den Dakotas.

wars
Many treaties were made between European settlers and Indians to try to end wars and Indian attacks on settlers, but all of them were broken by European settlers who wanted more land.

Where were the most advanced Indian civilizations in North America?
Pueblos and Chippewa

Did North American Indians have contact with Incas and Aztecs?
Pueblos traded with Aztecs. Since objects created in Mexico have been found in most of the South of USA there must have been quite a bit of trade.

Do Indians live in the USA today?
Yes, there are about ? million people who officially belong to Indian tribes.

Where do they live?
reservations
There are many Indian reservations in the West. In the East there are also areas considered officially Indian owned lands.

Do you think it is good that Indians have specifically designated areas where they may live and that they govern?
reservation




























ET
UFOS AND EXTRA-TERRESTIALS
UFO means Unidentified Flying Object. Unbekanntes Flugobjekt. sometimes they are called flying saucers. fliegende Untertasse. ET means ExtraTerrestial. ausserirdisch.

ET Trailer

Star Wars Trailers all of them 1977 to 2018

flyng saucer
This is a picture of what artists think an UFO looks like.
unidentifed object
This is a real photo of a possible real UFO.

Do you think UFOs really exist or are they just something you see in films or read about in science fiction?
There is no 100% certainty that UFOs did not originate on earth. The is no evidence that they were created by Extraterrestials, or that Extraterrestials could be travelling in them. However, it is not impossible. Research continues to discover whether there really are space ships and extraterrestials from other planets.
unidentifed object This is a photos of unidentified flying objects.
Why don’t astronomers see UFOs?
They do. In 1977, 1,356 scientists answered a questionaire. Of these 62 astronomers – 4.6 percent – reported seeing ufos. Most UFos can be identified eventually, but 5% cannot. They are UFOs.
Astronomers who saw UFOs saw them at night. Half of all astronomers thought they should be studied.
UFOs have been observed through telescopes in the 1700s and 1800s.
solar system
solar system
solar system
The Milky Way
Our Solar system is in the Milky way.
Have you seen the Milky Way?
How big is the Milky Way Galaxy?
The Milky Way Galaxy is our home in the existing Universe, it is a barred spiral galaxy 100,000‐120,000 light-years in diameter containing 200‐400 billion stars and at least as many planets including our solar system. The galactic center is named Sagittarius A and its believed to hold a super-massive black hole with an estimated mass of 4.1‐4.5 million times the mass of our Sun.
How old is the Milky Way Galaxy?
Milky Way Galaxy is approximately 13.7 billion years old, almost as the Universe itself. The age is determined by taking the age of the stars in the Milky Way.
How many stars are in the Milky Way Galaxy?
The Milky Way contains at least 100 billion stars and may have up to 400 billion stars. The exact number is not known.
If Ufos don't come from the Solar System where do they come from?
They would possibly come from planets in other solar systems. These planets are called Exoplanets.
How many exoplanets are there?
As of 1 May 2020, there are 4,260 confirmed exoplanets in 3,149 systems, with 696 systems having more than one planet.
However, there are thousands of other possible exoplanet detections that require further observations in order to say for sure whether or not the exoplanet is real.
exoplanets
exoplanets Various exoplanets which could have life on them.
How many exoplanets could have life on them?
New ones are being discovered all the time.
Do you think there are living beings like people living on any of these planets?
Have aliens visited earth?
About 5 percent of all UFO sightings cannot be easily explained by weather or human technology. A physicist argues that there’s compelling evidence to justify serious scientific study and that the skeptics should step aside – for the sake of humanity. alien These are pictures of how aliens might look.
alien
A photo from Roswell New Mexico in the USA is probably a hoax.
If there are ETs do you think they are friendly or dangerous?
There has never been an attack on earth by aliens from other planets.
This does not mean they are friendly if they exist.
Why would aliens want to visit earth?
Some people think Aliens would save humanity if things got bad. ETs may step in and save Planet Earth, but they wouldn't care about humans. UFOs have a long history of appearing just after catastrophes or wars. They could be keeping their eye on the prize we call Earth.
ET
Why do UFPs and ETs often look quite similar even though many different people have described them or drawn them at different times, places?
unidentifed objectThis is an ancient drawing of an alien.
unidentifed objectThis is an Egyptian Hieroglyphic of an Ufo.
Is the government hiding facts about alien visits to earth?
unidentifed object
There are many conspiracy theories about UFOs. A conspriacy theory means people believe something is real that cannot be proven.
Some people believe UFOs have landed on earth.They think the government of the USA is hiding information from them.
Most of the sightings have been studied by NASA.
NASA stands for The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and is an agency of the United States Federal Government. They study everything having to do with space including UFOs. Until recently they insisted there are no UFOs and no ETs and these are no danger to the world.
This has changed. Scientists think it is possible that there are Ufos and ETs.
The nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi was famous for posing thought-provoking questions. In 1950, at Los Alamos National Laboratory after discussing UFOs over lunch, Fermi asked, “Where is everybody?” He estimated there were about 300 billion stars in the galaxy, many of them billions of years older than the sun, with a large percentage of them likely to host habitable planets. Even if intelligent life developed on a very small percentage of these planets, then there should be a number of intelligent civilizations in the galaxy. Depending on the assumptions, one should expect anywhere from tens to tens of thousands of civilizations.
With our rockets for space travel, it would take between 5 and 50 million years for a civilization like ours to colonize our Milky Way galaxy. Since this should have happened several times already in the history of our galaxy, where is the evidence of these civilizations? If there is no evidence, how can that be? this is the Fermi Paradox.
Carl Sagan says, the problem is that there has been no single well-documented UFO encounter that could be the smoking gun. Even worse is that many governments around the world have hidden information about such encounters.
Is there Evidence from government and military officers who have seen Ufos?
Yes. Some of the most convincing observations have come from government officials. Last year, CEFAA released footage of a UFO taken with a helicopter-mounted Wescam infrared camera.
How could a space ship with ETs ever get to earth since they come from so far away?
wormhole
What is a portal? And could they be used to travel through space? A portal is the entrance to a worm hole. It can be shown that they exist. A NASA-sponsored researcher has developed a way for spacecraft to hunt down hidden magnetic portals in the vicinity of Earth. These portals link the magnetic field of our planet to that of the sun.The existence of portals would go a long way in explaining the erratic and very short duration of many UFO sightings. Could it be possible that UFOs are only seen as they "uncloak" just prior to entering or exiting a portal.
Since we know that portals exist between planet earth and the sun it is likely that portals would exist between galaxies. This would explain why we have not found anybody living in our immediate neighborhood. Maybe there is an abundance of life in the universe but not in our Milky Way. It could be they are traversing the galaxies using these portals.
Wormholes
You cannot see a worm hole. But it could explain the vast distances intelligent life would have to travel to visit earth. This means we not only search our galaxy for other planets, but also the whole universe.